Double-entry Accounting System

4. Illustration of applying double-entry accounting system

Let's use an illustration. A company, called Huske's Consultants, started its operations on January 1, 20X6 when the owner, Mrs. Huske, contributed cash to the business. All accounts had zero beginning balances before this capital contribution. We will see how each transaction affects T accounts and the accounting equation. Transaction impacts on the financial statements will be shown in a horizontal statements model. All events are numbered and their numbers are used as recording references.

Recall that there are four types of accounting events:

  • Asset source transactions
  • Asset use transactions
  • Asset exchange transactions
  • Claims exchange transactions

The transaction type will be indicated for each accounting event. All transactions took place during 20X6.

Due to the space limitations, we will not show all accounts while explaining a transaction. Only those accounts that are affected by a particular transaction will be shown in the accounting equation.

In the cash flow section of the horizontal model, OA, FA and IA stand for operating, financing and investing activities, respectively.

4.1. Analysis of cash contribution transaction

Event No. 1: On January 1, 20X6 the owner made a $10,000 cash contribution. This accounting event acts to increase both assets (Cash) and equity (Contributed Capital). The increase in the Cash account is recorded as a debit and the increase in the Contributed Capital account (equity) is recorded as a credit:

Illustration 2: Effect of a capital contribution in T accounts

Assets

=

Liabilities

+

Equity

Cash

 

 

 

Contributed Capital

Debit
(1) + 10,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

Credit
(1) + 10,000

This is an asset source transaction:

Illustration 3: Effect of a capital contribution in the horizontal model

Assets

=

Liabilities

+

Equity

Rev.

-

Exp.

=

Net Inc.

Cash Flow

10,000

=

n/a

+

10,000

n/a

-

n/a

=

n/a

10,000

FA

4.2. Analysis of supplies purchase on account transaction

Event No. 2: On May 15, Huske's Consultants purchased $400 worth of office supplies from a local supply company on account (i.e., agreed to pay for them on a later date). Purchasing supplies on account acts to increase assets (Supplies) and liabilities (Accounts Payable). The Supplies account is debited and the Accounts Payable account is credited:

Illustration 4: Effect of a supplies purchase in T accounts

Assets

=

Liabilities

+

 Equity

Supplies

 

Accounts Payable

 

 

Debit
(2) + 400

 

 

 

Credit
(2) + 400

 

 

 

This is an asset source transaction:

Illustration 5: Effect of a supplies purchase in the horizontal model

Assets

=

Liabilities

+

Equity

Rev.

-

Exp.

=

Net Inc.

Cash Flow

400

=

400

+

n/a

n/a

-

n/a

=

n/a

n/a

 

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